Encourage investment and increase infrastructure budget

Encourage investment and increase infrastructure budget
Encourage investment. To overcome unemployment and poverty, the long-term solution is to encourage private investment. At present, the gross domestic investment level. (GDI) is only 19% of GDP, far below the pre-crisis figure which averaged 30%. While investment has not yet shown signs of wriggling, fiscal policy must be more expansive and if necessary the deficit is pushed up to 3% of GDP or the maximum allowed by law. This additional deficit can then be used to build labor-intensive infrastructure. There are two advantages to this type of strategy. First, creating a better and broader infrastructure that will encourage private investment.
Second, creating jobs temporarily before the private sector stretches again. Increasing the deficit certainly requires financing and means the government must increase its debt stock. From the profile of maturity of foreign and domestic debt, it appears that after 2012 liabilities due are decreasing sharply (Ogbuda on Trade receivables management and liquidity journal). That is, there is an opportunity to increase the stock of debt as long as the debt does not mature before that year. Therefore, the new debt created due to an increase in deficit must be in the form of long-term debt. Even if they want to look conservative, an increase in infrastructure budget need not lead to an increase in debt stock.
You do this by increasing fiscal effectiveness. During the administration, the government consumption budget had increased from 7.2% of GDP to 8.7% of GDP. On the other hand, the development budget fell from 4.4% to only 2.8% of GDP. From these statistics we can know that fiscal consolidation is not done correctly. This method cannot be said as fiscal consolidation! The approach should be reversed, government investment increased or maintained, and at the same time consumption was reduced. If the approach is reversed, there is actually an opportunity to increase government capital expenditure by 1.5% of GDP or around 30 trillion.
With this much money, the fiscal position remains safe and we can still increase the budget for infrastructure development. The money can also be used as a buffer for possible swelling of the subsidy budget as is happening now. We actually still have room to create fiscal stimulus, reduce unemployment, and provide subsidies. That is, the most important thing is precisely how we manage state expenditure more effectively. Unfortunately, for the past three years this has not been done. Fiscal consolidation is just empty jargon. The new government must of course make changes in fiscal policy. Unfortunately again, the intention in that direction has not yet been seen.
The Minister of Finance indicated that the 2005 Draft State Budget would not yet be revised and the fiscal policy would not be changed, aka the same as the previous cabinet. If the old paradigm is used, then we are very difficult to expect changes in fiscal policy. And, that means we cannot build, reduce unemployment, and eradicate poverty. We all certainly do not want the same thing to happen repeatedly, from one government to the next.
Quo vadis change? state expenditure more effectively. Unfortunately, for the past three years this has not been done. Fiscal consolidation is just empty jargon. The new government must of course make changes in fiscal policy. Unfortunately again, the intention in that direction has not yet been seen. The Minister of Finance indicated that the 2005 Draft State Budget would not yet be revised and the fiscal policy would not be changed, aka the same as the previous cabinet. If the old paradigm is used, then we are very difficult to expect changes in fiscal policy. And, that means we cannot build, reduce unemployment, and eradicate poverty.

Fiscal consolidation and sustainability

Fiscal consolidation and sustainability
Fiscal CONSOLIDATION and fiscal sustainability are the words in the past three years that have been the most expressed by the fiscal authority. However, I am sure that those two words are not well understood by ordinary people so that they are only buzz-words used to hide the real problem. That is, we sometimes emphasize the importance of fiscal consolidation without actually implementing it. An example is the case of a swelling budget deficit that some time ago was reported by the government. The deficit is likely to reach IDR 30 trillion or around 1.5% of GDP. In fact, initially only targeted around 0.8% (Ubaye on Overview of Foreigh Policy in Consolidating Development).
Indeed, this swelling is still manageable because the government receives additional revenue from oil revenue sharing and the rest can be covered with a precautionary fund that is always prepared every year. Of course we understand very well that this swelling is a direct consequence of the increase in fuel subsidies which is likely to reach more than Rp60 trillion, depending on developments in world oil prices and the dollar exchange rate.
The increase in world oil prices can no longer be seen as something beneficial. Before the reformation era, rising oil prices always created windfall profits. Now, it creates a deficit burden. We also understand that the increase in world oil prices is outside the government's control. This is like an accident. But, have we ever been prepared or on guard to avoid the accident? That is the problem. We never prepare an umbrella before it rains. The purpose of fiscal consolidation is to create fiscal sustainability.
Fiscal indeed we face a serious problem because it is too burdened by debt. Approximately one third of the government budget must be allocated to pay interest and debt repayments. As a result, the government does not have enough room to fund development. Government investment expenditure, including for infrastructure strengthening, is now only two percent of GDP. A level that is extremely low and is not even enough to compensate for depreciation and damage to basic infrastructure such as roads and public facilities that are getting worse like they are today.
The paradigm used by the government and parliament is to try to reduce the budget deficit, and in 2006 or 2007 the budget was balanced. By definition, debt stock will be able to be reduced if the government is able to create a surplus. Without that, the government has to dig holes close the hole, pay old debt by creating new debt. But, there are two basic questions from this approach. First, is this policy an appropriate alternative and in accordance with current economic conditions? And secondly, even if this approach is considered appropriate, has it been implemented correctly? Both are still big question marks.
FOR the first thing, there are already too many economists, including Stiglitz, who argue that reducing the budget deficit when the economy has not recovered from the crisis is a step that has not even been done in developed countries. This is tantamount to providing diet therapy for people who are very thin. What should have been done instead was creating a fiscal stimulus by increasing the development budget. At the time of the great depression in the 1930s, US President FD Roosevelt actually increased the deficit to finance labor-intensive development projects such as dams, roads and railroads.
At that time, the reason was that leaving unemployed and hungry people far more dangerous than the budget deficit. Now, in the World, with 10.3 million people who are openly unemployed and 29 million who are underemployed, it feels too rash if the government continues to prioritize reducing the deficit. Not to mention the number of poor and starving people who are still 38 million people. The priority should be to create jobs and eradicate poverty. The failure to overcome these two problems has proven to have contributed to the defeat in the past presidential election. That is, pressing the deficit is not at all attractive to the people.

Career management in an organization

Career management in an organization
External Factors It often happens, all the rules in career management in an organization become chaotic due to outside intervention. An employee who promotes to a higher position, for example, might be forced to be canceled because someone else was dropped from outside the organization. Regardless of whether or not this kind of incident is permissible, ethical or unethical, such an event clearly disrupts the career management that has been designed by the organization (Henry Bohwani on International Journals).
Politicking in Organizations Employee career management will stall and even die if other factors such as intrigue, whispering, relationships between friends, nepotism, feudalism, and so on, are more dominantly affecting one's career than work performance. In other words, if the level of "politicking" in an organization is so severe, then career management will almost certainly die on its own. Career planning will be just lip service. And the organization will be led by people who are smart in politicking but low in professionalism.
Reward System The management system (reward system) greatly influences many things, including employee career management. Organizations that do not have a clear reward system (other than salary and incentives) will tend to treat their employees subjectively. Employees who perform well are considered to be the same as lazy employees. At present, many organizations are starting to build a good reward system (for example by using a "credit point" system) in the hope that every achievement shown by employees can be given a "credit point" in a certain amount. Number of Employees According to experience and common sense logic, the more employees there is, the tighter the competition to occupy a position, and the less chance (chances) for an employee to achieve certain career goals.
The number of employees an organization has greatly influences existing career management. If the number of employees is small, career management will be simple and easy to manage. If the number of employees is large, then career management becomes complicated and not easily managed. Organizational Size The size of the organization in this context relates to the number of positions in the organization, including the number of types of work, and the number of employee personnel needed to fill various positions and jobs.
Usually, the larger the organization, the more complex the management career matters are employees. However, opportunities for employee promotion and rotation are also greater. Organizational Culture Like a community system, an organization also has a culture and habits. There are organizations that tend to be professional, objective, raational, and democratic. There are also organizations that tend to be feudalistic, rational, and democratic.
There are also organizations that tend to value work performance (merit system). There are also organizations that value seniority more than anything else. Therefore, even though the organization already has a good and well-established career management system in writing, its implementation is still very dependent on the existing organizational culture. Management Type Theoretically-normatively, all management is the same in this world. But in its implementation, management in one organization may be very different from management in another organization. There is management that tends to be rigid, authoritarian, centralized, closed, undemocratic.
There is also management that tends to be flexible, participatory, open, and democratic. If management tends to be rigid and closed, then the involvement of employees in terms of their own career development also tends to be minimal. Conversely, if management tends to be open, participatory, and democratic, then the involvement of employees in their career coaching also tends to be large. In other words, an employee's career depends not only on internal factors (such as motivation to work hard and willingness to progress), but also highly dependent on external factors such as management. Many employees are actually hard working, smart, honest, forced to not succeed in pursuing a career well, just because this employee is "trapped" in a bad management system.

Factors that influence career development

Factors that influence career development
Factors that influence career development are that the success of the career development process is not only important for the organization as a whole. In this case, several things or factors that are often very influential on career management are: a. Relationship of Employees and Organizations In ideal situations, organizational employees are in a mutually beneficial relationship. In this ideal situation, both employees and organizations can achieve high work productivity. However, sometimes this ideal state fails to achieve. Sometimes employees have worked well, but the organization does not match the employee's performance with reasonable rewards (Mackerty on The Journals). Thus, disharmony relations between employees and this organization will sooner or later affect the career management process of employees. For example, the employee career planning process will stall because employees may not be invited to participate in career planning.
The career development process will also be hampered because organizations may not care about employee careers. b. Employee Personnel Sometimes, employee career management is disrupted because there are employees who have distorted personalities (too emotional, apathetic, too ambitious, cheating, too ignorant, etc.).
Apathetic employees, for example, will find it difficult to develop their careers because they themselves do not care about their own careers. Similarly, employees who tend to be too ambitious and cheating. This employee may force his will to achieve career goals contained in career management. This situation becomes worse and cannot be controlled if the employee feels strong for some reason (has connections with the boss, has backing from certain people, and so on). Making the company a learning organization.
Information must be responded with knowledge and common sense. Today, there is so much information that anyone can produce information and disseminate it through sites on the internet. So, the world of the internet allows everyone to continually learn for themselves from the information that is spread. But, keep in mind, all the information is not necessarily true or right, and not necessarily good for the company, or for the good of improving your career. Do not be too easy to trust all the information you get from social media, always strengthen your quality with knowledge and common sense so that you can get the right information for career advancement.
Building and improving expertise is not an instant job, it takes a process and time to make an expert and reliable employee at work. This is an important task that requires leadership, integrity, time and a long process. Making employees skilled and superior is committed to developing and improving the quality and competence of employees for life.
So, companies must have policies and programs that are consistent to build employee expertise in all sectors in the workplace. Expertise must be displayed through a great work ethic. Expertise must be able to increase the company's credibility to provide quality services to stakeholders. Expertise must be able to increase confidence in a humble attitude. Expertise must be able to encourage the development and improvement of performance. Employee expertise must be able to grow excellence in every action. Effective management results from the best skills, competencies and quality of work of employees and leaders.
That is, leaders and employees must have discipline and integrity to learn and maintain a humble attitude. If arrogance arises and the wisdom to be humble disappears, then negative energy will damage all the skills possessed. High attitude never makes a person learn to grow, but only makes someone like to show off his little ability. All divisions in the organizational structure are responsible for moving in one direction, namely in the same vision. Although the functions of each division are different, they are not created to be different.
All divisions were created to unite through collaboration in order to produce the best performance. In essence, there should not be a barrier to collaboration at work. Each division must have an awareness to adapt to the workings of each different function. The difference between each division is actually to strengthen security and minimize organizational risk, not to highlight the sectoral ego or function ego. A fact that all divisions are formed to be the execution force in achieving the best performance. This is a reality that must work within the organization, not each division accentuates the ego and weakens the process of achieving performance. Productivity and performance are two things that must be owned and fought together by each division. The awareness of division leaders to unite in a solid and compact collaboration, is a responsibility that must be carried out with integrity.

Natural gas is a vital component for world energy supply

Natural gas is a vital component for world energy supply
Natural gas is a vital component for world energy supply. Natural gas is an important source for both fuel and ammonia production (ammonia is a vital component for fertilizer production). Similar to crude oil and coal, natural gas is a fossil fuel derived from the remains of plants, animals and microorganisms, stored underground for millions of years. But unlike other fossil fuels, natural gas is one of the cleanest energy sources (has a low carbon intensity), the safest and most useful of all energy sources. An important image of natural gas is that this fuel plays a significant role in most sectors of the world economy (Approach to regulating gas flaring). Moreover, due to the fact that there are many natural gas reserves in the world - which can be developed and produced without the need for large investments - natural gas is likely to become increasingly important in the future because most countries want to reduce dependence on expensive and inhospitable energy sources environment like oil.
At present, natural gas contributes around 23% of the world's primary energy sources. The world produces about twice the natural gas it consumes. However, this does not mean that domestic gas production meets domestic gas demand. In fact, there is a shortage of gas for domestic industries in the World. Perusahaan Gas Negara (PGN) has not been able to meet domestic demand. This has wide-ranging impacts because it causes the National Electricity Company (PLN), the largest domestic gas consumer, to experience a structural shortage of gas supply and force PLN to switch to fossil fuels - which are more expensive and not environmentally friendly - others, like petroleum, to produce electricity. Even so, power outages often occur throughout the country (especially outside the big cities of Java), and therefore burden the country's industries.
Moreover, nearly 80 million of the world's population does not yet have access to electricity as indicated by the relatively low percentage of electricity in the world at 84.1% in 2014. The World Government aims to limit the country's gas exports in order to secure domestic supplies while encouraging the use of natural gas as a fuel source for industrial and personal consumption. Most of the gas production is exported because the country's gas production is dominated by foreign companies that are only willing to invest if allowed to export this commodity.
At present, foreign companies, such as CNOOC Limited, Total E&P World, Conoco Philips, BP Tangguh, and Exxon Mobil Oil World, contribute to around 87% of the world's natural gas production. The remaining 13% is produced by Pertamina's State-Owned Enterprises (BUMN). About half of the total gas production is sold domestically. As shown in the table above - and in contrast to national oil production - gas production in the world has remained stable, recording a high in 2010 due to the start of Tangguh field production (located in Papua) in the same year (managed by BP World) which is a important fields in the country's gas industry.
After 2010, gas production has declined due to supply problems. Although a number of small companies are active in the World gas sector, the majority of domestic production and exploration is in the hands of the six companies mentioned, of which only one is owned by the World (Pertamina). When combined, CNOOC Ltd. from the People's Republic of China (PRC) and Pertamina contribute to more than half of the world's gas production. Throughout its history, World gas production has always been aimed at the export market.
Nevertheless, the decline in domestic oil production combined with an increase in international oil prices, made the Government decide to make efforts to increase the use of domestic gas from the mid-2000s to the present. In recent years gas use has increased rapidly and reduced exports but limited infrastructure facilities in the World transmission and distribution network complicate further development of domestic consumption. Limited feasible infrastructure is also caused due to lack of investment but also due to the country's geographical condition.
Distribution with tankers is easier than pipelines because important natural gas reserves are located offshore, far from major gas demand centers. After Qatar, Malaysia and Australia, the World is currently the fourth largest exporter of liquefied natural gas (LNG) in the world. This does not mean - as mentioned above - that domestic demand can be met by domestic production. As a result, the world needs to import LNG from abroad so as not to disrupt export commitments. It is estimated that in 2017 additional supplies from the world's new gas fields will be able to replace imports.

Understanding Employee Performance

Understanding Employee Performance
Understanding Employee Performance: Basically, companies certainly need employees as workers who improve quality products and services. Because employees are considered an important part of company assets in contributing to the company to obtain good performance and be able to compete. According to Wibowo (The Problematic Data Associated with Employee Output Journals) performance is the result of work that has a strong relationship with the strategic objectives of the organization, customer satisfaction, and contribute to the economy.
According to Khaerul Umam (2010: 189) defines performance is the work achieved by individuals in accordance with the role or task in a certain period, which is associated with a certain value or standard size of the organization where the individual works. Hariandja in Margono Setiawan (2008) what is meant by performance is the result of work produced by employees or actual behavior that is displayed in accordance with their role in the organization.
Mangkunegara in Wawan Prahiawan (2008) argues that performance is the work of quality and quantity achieved by an employee in carrying out their duties in accordance with the responsibilities given to him. According to Robert L. Malthis and John H. Jackson (2006: 113) performance is what employees do or don't do. Meanwhile, according to Rivai in Eko Wahyu Widayat (2010) states that performance is a contribution that can be given by a part, in achieving company goals. Therefore these contributions need to be measured how much influence From the theories above it can be concluded that performance is the process of achieving organizational goals and the results of human resource efforts themselves in an organization.
Measurement of Employee Performance According to Robertson (2002: 115) states that performance measurement is a process of evaluating work progress towards achieving goals and targets that have been determined, including information on the efficiency of the use of resources in producing goods and services, quality, comparison of performance results with targets and effectiveness of actions in achieving destination.
Purpose of Measuring Employee Performance The main purpose of performance measurement is to motivate employees in achieving organizational goals and in complying with predetermined standards of behavior, so that results and actions are desired (Mulyadi, 2002: 420). Performance measurement can be used to suppress inappropriate behavior and to stimulate and enforce the behavior that is desirable, through timely feedback of performance results and rewards, both intrinsic and extrinsic.
The benefits of performance measurement (Mulyadi, 2002: 416) for management are to: Manage the organization's operations effectively and efficiently through maximum personnel motivation. Helping with decisions relating to employees, such as promotions, transfers and terminations. Identify employee training and development needs and to provide criteria for selection and evaluation of employee training programs. Provide feedback for employees about how their superiors assess them. Provides a basis for the distribution of awards.
Leadership and employees must be united to build expertise in the workplace. Together expand skills, insight, knowledge, expertise, and integrity. Together promoting positive energy as a foundation for developing a trusted company image, increasing credibility, being professional in every situation, and making employees and leadership have the confidence to overcome a crisis or an unfavorable situation.

Forest management and development

Forest management and development
The management and development of community forests need to be increased in productivity so that community welfare is expected to increase. Some analysis of problems that often arise in the management and development of community forests include the following: 1. Problems Decreasing soil fertility in community forest areas One way that can be done to overcome this problem is the management of soil fertility in the area owned by farmers and the application of soil and water conservation techniques. Learning from what has been done in the past and the consequences felt at this time, what needs to be done is to reformulate the soil conservation efforts with new policies and adapted to the current conditions.
The central government program in the field of forestry and alternating land conservation was launched by the central government starting from the National Movement for Forest and Land Rehabilitation (Gerahan) launched by the government since 2003, followed by the Small Planting Program for Harvesting and finally the Million Tree Planting Movement and the One Person One Man One Program Tree. However, the policy has not yet touched on the issues raised (Bonjohson on Understory Pasture in A Silvopastoral Agroforestry System Journal).
The scarcity of fertilizers and the high cost of artificial (inorganic) fertilizers can now be overcome by policy the development of organic fertilizer in the form of manure and other organic fertilizers such as the use of bekasi, the use of organic material and fermented manure and accelerated the decomposition process through the help of EM4 microorganisms and the like. However, until now bekasi fertilizers and various other types of organic fertilizers that are already widely on the market have not been able to replace the benefits of artificial fertilizers so that the dependence of farmers on artificial fertilizers is still quite large.
The use of manure is commonly practiced by farmers but is currently needed in relatively larger amounts to be able to maintain soil fertility. The problem is the lack of capital owned by farmers so that farmers generally do not implement fertilization. Some technical approaches that can be taken to overcome this problem are: a. Completion of community forest agroforestry patterns by intensifying the planting of binding plants Nitrogen between rows of plants b. Enabling the use of crop residue mulch as organic compost with more techniques practical like Vertical Mulch Technology. c. Enrich the nutrient content of organic fertilizer produced so that it can replace the role inorganic fertilizer (artificial fertilizer).
2. Problems with potential data on community forests that are not yet accurate To overcome this problem, efforts are needed to accurately re-establish the condition and existence of community forests to find out their true potential so that appropriate development planning can be made. Accurate data is needed to be able to draw up proper planning. In this case, effective public forest inventory methods are needed. The current forest inventory method is still based on the inventory method in natural forests. The method of inventorying natural forests needs modification to be applied in community forests because the condition of community forests is very different from natural forests.
3. Problems relating to the preservation of community forests To preserve community forests, it is necessary to start with planting techniques aimed at forming stand structures that approach normal forests consisting of various age classes. Without the structure of the stand, the community forest will not be guaranteed its sustainability because at any time it can change its designation. Changing farmers' habits from an ordinary planting system to a planting system by constructing a stand structure is not easy. For this reason, it is necessary to pilot community forest development techniques with stand structures that approach normal forests both on vacant land and on land that already has plants through enrichment with certain techniques. These pilot activities need to be formulated in the form of policies that enable the sustainable development of community forests.